Original author: Tommy Nguyen

There are various DNS solutions available on Fedora, including but not limited to dnsmasq, BIND, Unbound, etc. systemd-resolved has some overlapping functionality with Unbound and other solutions, but is known to be buggy and feature incomplete. dnscrypt-proxy is not that widely used, but contains blocking and a built-in DNS-over-HTTPS server. Unbound can be combined with dnscrypt-proxy for example by forwarding requests, however, they overlap with blocking capabilities and caching. Generally speaking, you would use dnscrypt-proxy for DNS-over-HTTPS and other solutions for DNS-over-TLS.

Interoperability with systemd-resolved

A lot of guides suggest disabling systemd-resolved when using dnscrypt. However, it is relatively straight forward to get it working. A couple of things to note:

  • systemd-resolved will not do any caching when it detects another resolver running on localhost (i.e, dnscrypt), so resolvectl statistics will be misleading
  • it will claim no DNSSEC support, although we can test this later

One footgun is that systemd-resolved will use a fallback resolver if DNS resolution doesn’t work for some reason. This is obviously undesirable because it might result in traffic being sent unencrypted. The solution is to ensure that traffic is only sent to dnscrypt-proxy and that there are no fallback resolvers.

First, in Network Manager, ensure that your DNS server points to Then, we’re going to create a config file in /etc/systemd/resolved.conf.d/dns_servers.conf with the following contents:


If everything worked correctly, running resolvectl status should show something similar to:

         Protocols: LLMNR=resolve -mDNS -DNSOverTLS DNSSEC=no/unsupported
  resolv.conf mode: stub
Current DNS Server:
       DNS Servers:
        DNS Domain: ~.

Now how do we actually test if everything is working properly?

  • For DNSSEC, use https://dnssec.vs.uni-due.de/
  • For QNAME minimization, run dig qnamemintest.internet.nl txt
  • For blocking, you can either enable logging in dnscrypt or run resolvectl query for a domain you expect to be blocked. dig should also show a message saying the query was blocked locally by your resolver
  • For leaking, https://dnsleaktest.com/